Rotational forces applied to the carrier equal to the linear force applied (weight) multiplied by the distance between the location of the force (center of gravity) and the surface center of the carrier. Typically expressed as yaw (Mz), pitch (Mx) and Roll (My). (See illustration with “LOAD”).
Type of drive that proportions the current in a step motor’s windings to provide intermediate positions between full steps. Advantages over full and half stepping include smoothness of rotation and higher position resolution.